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Author jeon
Date and Time Saturday, June 02, 2012

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Author jeon
Date and Time Saturday, June 02, 2012

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Author jeon
Date and Time Thursday, May 31, 2012

WORK CONFLICT AND STRESS jeon rwxr-xr-x 0 Thursday, July 21, 2011

Permission rw-r--r--
Author jeon
Date and Time Thursday, July 21, 2011
         Traditionally, the field of organizational behavior stress & conflict discussed separately.
Conceptually, stress & conflict are the same.
The interaction of individuals, groups, and more conflict-related organizations.

The success of an organization depends on its ability to manage a variety of its resources, one of the most important of human resources.
Job satisfaction is generally about one's attitude about his job. Because it involves an attitude, sense of job satisfaction include things like the condition and trends of behavior. 
Satisfaction and it does not seem real, but can be embodied in an employment outcome. One very important issue in the field of industrial psychology is to encourage employees to work more productively. Theoretically, the factors that may affect job satisfaction are very numerous, such as leadership style, work productivity, behavior, locus of control, compliance and effectiveness of payroll expectations. Factors that are typically used to measure an employee's job satisfaction is: (a) the work content, the appearance of the actual job duties and as a control to work, (b) supervision, (c) organization and management, (d) opportunity for advancement; (e) wages and benefits in areas such as financial incentives, (f) co-workers, and (g) conditions of employment.

Understanding Conflict           
         Work conflict is a mismatch between two or more members or group (within an organization / company) who must share limited resources or activities or because of work and the fact that they have different status, goals, values ​​or perceptions. Conflicts of work can also be interpreted as the behavior of members of an organization devoted to opposition to other members. Besides the conflict is defined as the differences, conflicts and disputes (Rival, 2008).

The existence of Conflict           
         The existence of conflict within an organization can not be avoided, in other words that the conflict is always present and can not be circumvented. Conflicts often arise and occur in every organization, and there are different views of experts in criticizing the conflict. (Mitchell, dkk.2000) explains that a conflict or disagreement on certain conditions is able to identify an environmental management processes and resources that can not run effectively, sharpen ideas, can even explain the misunderstanding. Conflicts of interest among members of the organization or the community is a reasonableness. To clarify the issue of conflict, theoretically been distinguished conflict as follows:

Conflict within the organization
a. Traditional conflict
         This conflict occurs because of differences in interest according to their respective interests between the two parties are bound yana working relationship. Both sides are usually among the leaders (managers) and employees / members of the organization, although it can occur also between employees and / or between groups of employees
b. Conflict behavior
         This conflict occurs because of conflict behavior based on differences in the backgrounds of employees / members of the organization. The other difference between the inequality of cultural background, education, ethnicity, religion, race, skin color (especially between blacks and whites in the western hemisphere), etc.. In fact this conflict can be distinguished between:
1). Functional conflict is a conflict that competition in the achievement. This conflict is generally considered positive for the organization, so it needs to be managed.
2). Conflict Interaction, According to this theory conflicts may occur due to interaction disharmonis which can always occur in human beings realize the nature sosialitasnya. One cause is a condition of emotional intelligence or social intelligence organization members / employees is still relatively low. Among them appear in the attitudes and behaviors want to win themselves, tend to prefer patronizing others, feel more super than others / arrogant, selfish and want to privileged and others, in both hang out and work. DuBrin (1984) in Wahyudi (2006) states that the conflict refers to conflict or an individual or group that could increase tensions as a result of blocking each other in achieving goals.
The occurrence of Conflict Causes
         Conflicts usually arise in the organization as a result of problem- communication problems, personal relationships or organizational structure. Briefly cause of the conflict can be explained as follows:
  1. Communication: misunderstandings with regard to the sentence, the language difficult to understand or the information ambiguous and incomplete, as well as individual style managers are not consistent. 
  2.  Structure: The power struggle between ministries with interests of interests, competition for resources is limited or interdependence of two or more groups of work activities to achieve their goals.
  3. Personal: goal incompatibility, do not know the values ​​of employees with personal social behavior that played on their positions and differences in values ​​or perceptions (Supardi, 2003). Conflicts can occur in many situations the organization of work, Wahyudi (2006) that said, the rules are enforced and that the written procedures and not written down can cause conflicts, if its application is too stiff and hard. Each member organization inherits values ​​based on background life, the application of penalties as a result of strict application of rules cause the individual to work under threat is not based on motivation. Conflicts arise because of the fact that, members compete for get the organization's resources are limited, increasing workload, the flow tasks that are less understood subordinates, communication errors, and the difference status, goals or perceptions (Handoko, 2003). Conflict occurs because there are conditions that precede, and the condition a source of conflict (Hardjana, 1994). The emergence of conflicts the dynamics and organizational development, because it is the leadership (managers) need to understand some of the reasons that could lead to conflict, and examine conflict as an event that can not be separated from the question of organization.



Understanding Job Stress
          Generally people think that if someone is faced with the demands of work that goes beyond the ability of the individual, it is said that the individual is experiencing job stress. Understanding that are internal that creates an imbalance of physical and psychic in a person as a result of the external environment, organizations, other. Stress as an umbrella term that merangkumi pressure, load, conflicts, fatigue, tension, panic, feeling the roar, anxieti, moodiness and loss of power. Job stress is a condition of tension that creates an imbalance of physical and psychological, that affect emotions, thought processes, and the condition of an employee. Stress that is too large can threaten a person's ability to deal with the environment. As a result, the employees themselves developed a variety of symptoms of stress that can disrupt the execution of their work. People who experience stress can become nervous and feel chronic anxiety. They often become irritable and aggression, can not relax, or an uncooperative attitude (Rival, 2008).

Categorized Via the Stress of Work:          
         According to Phillip L. Rice, Author of the book Stress and Health, a person can be categorized as experiencing stress of work if:
  1. Stress experienced affairs involving also the organization or company where individuals work. But the cause is not only in the company, because of domestic problems that carried over into the job and employment issues are brought into the home can also be a cause of work stress 
  2.  Resulting in negative impact for companies and individuals
  3. Therefore necessary cooperation between the two sides to resolve the problem with such stress.
Impact on Companies          
         An organization or company can be analogous to the human body. If one of the limbs is disturbed, it will hamper the whole movement, causing the whole body feels sore and cause the individual can not function normally. Similarly, if many of the employees in the organization of work experience stress, productivity and health of the organization will be disrupted. If the stress experienced by the organization or company is not settled, then it could potentially invite a more serious illness. Not only individuals who may develop the disease, any organization can have a so-called diseases of the organization.           

         Randall Schuller (1980), identifies some of the negative behaviors that affect the organization's employees. According to researchers, the stress faced by employees is correlated with a decrease in work performance, increased work absenteeism, as well as the tendency of an accident. Briefly some of the negative impacts caused by the stress of work can be: 1. The occurrence of chaos, the barriers in both management and operational work 2. Disrupt the normalcy of work activities 3. Lowering the level of productivity 4. Lowering income and corporate profits. Financial losses suffered by companies due to Uneven between productivity and costs incurred to pay the salaries, allowances and other facilities. Many employees who do not come to work with a variety of reasons, or work not completed on time either because of inertia or because of the many mistakes are repeated.

Impact on Individuals
         The impact of job stress for individuals is the emergence of problems related to health, psychological and interpersonal interaction: - Health - Psychological - Interpersonal Interaction

Source of Stress
         To understand the sources of job stress, job stress we should see this as an interaction of several factors, namely the stress in the work itself as external factors and internal factors such as character and perception of the employees themselves. In other words, work stress is not solely due to internal problems, because the reaction to the stimulus will depend on the individual's subjective reaction to each.           Some sources of stress which, according to Cary Cooper (1983) is considered as a source of job stress is the stress due to: 1. Working conditions, 2. Problem of the role, 3. Interpersonal relationships, 4. Career development opportunities, 5. Organizational structure.

Overcoming Work Stress
         Stress also work no matter how small must be dealt with immediately. A renowned expert in the field of mental health, Jere Yates (1979) suggests there are eight (8) the rules to be followed in dealing with stress are:
  1. Maintain a healthy body as best you can, try a variety of ways that you do not get sick. 
  2. Accept yourself as you are, foibles and strengths, failures and successes as part of your life.
  3. Stay beautiful maintaining friendly relations with someone who you think is the most can be invited to vent.
  4. Perform a positive and constructive action in addressing the sources of your stress at work, for example, seek immediate solutions to the problems faced on the job.
  5. Stay maintain social relationships with people outside your working environment, for example with a neighbor or close relative.
  6. Try to maintain a creative activity outside of work, such as exercise or recreation.
  7. Engaging in useful occupations, such as social and religious activities.
  8. Use the method of analysis is quite scientific and rational in viewing or analyzing your work stress problems.

MANAGEMENT OF INTEREST RATE RISK jeon rwxr-xr-x 2 Wednesday, July 20, 2011

Permission rw-r--r--
Author jeon
Date and Time Wednesday, July 20, 2011
          Finacial intermediaries (FIs) often mismatch the maturities of their asset and liabilities. In so doing, they expose themselves to interest rete risk. For example, in the 1980s, a large number of thrifts suffered economic insolvency (i.e., the net worth or equity of their owners was eradicated) due to major increases in interest rates. This topic discusses the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy whick is a key determinant of interest rate risk. This topic also analyzes two of the simpler methods to measure an FI’s interest rate risk: the repricing model and the maturity model. The repricing model,

          Underlying the movement of interest rates is the central bank’s monetary policy strategy. The central bank in teh United States is the Federal Reserve Bank (the Fed). Throught its daily open-market operations such as buying and selling Treasury bonds and Treasury bills, the Fed seeks to influence the money supply and the level of interest (particulary short-term interest rates).
Furthermore, if the Fed smooths or targets the level of interest rates, unexpected interest rate shocks and interest rate volatility tend to be small. Accordingly, in a low interest rate volatility environment, the risk exposure to an FI from mismatching the maturities of its asset and liabilities tends to be small.
In addition to the Fed’s impact on rates via its monetary policy strategy is the increasing level of financial market integration throughout the word. Financial market integration increases the speed of interest rate transmission omong countries, making interest rates more volatile and their control by the Federal Reserve more difficult and less certain.

Repricing of funding gap
          The difference between those asset whose interest rates will be repriced or changed over some future period (RSAs) and liabilities whose interest rates will be repriced or changed over some future period (RSLs).

          The repricing or funding gap model is essentially a book value accounting cash flow analysis of the interest revenue earned on an FI’s asset and the interest expense paid on its liabilities (or net interest income) over some particular peroid.
A bank reports the gaps in each maturity bucket (or bin) by calculating the rate sensitivity of each asset (RSA) and each liability (RSL) on its balance sheet. Rate sensitivity means that the asset or liability is repriced at or near current market interest rates within a maturity bucket. More simply, it indicates how long the FI manager must wait to change the posted interest retes on any asset or liability.

Unequal Changes in Rates on RSAs and RSLs
The section considered changes in net interest income as interest rates changed, assumsing that change in rates on RSAs was exactly equal to the change in rates on RSLs (in other word, assumming the interest rates spreed between rates on RSAs and RSLs remained uchanged).

Althought a strategy of matching asset and liability maturities moves the bank in the direction of hedging it self against interest rate risk, it is easy to show that this strategy does not aleways eliminete all interest rate risk for an FI. Indeed, we show in topic that immunization against interest rate risk required the bank to consider the following.

DEFINITION AND MEANING OF DERIVATIVES jeon rwxr-xr-x 3 Friday, July 15, 2011

Permission rw-r--r--
Author jeon
Date and Time Friday, July 15, 2011
           In the world of finance (finance), a derivative is a bilateral contract or payment exchange agreement whose value is derived, or derived from the product being "basic reference" or so-called "derivative works" (underlying product); rather than trade or exchange the physical asset, market participants to make an agreement to exchange money, assets or a value disuatu the future with reference to the assets that became fundamental reference.
Derivatives are used by the investment management / portfolio management, corporate and financial institutions and individual investors to manage the positions they have on the risk of the stock and commodity price movements, interest rates, foreign exchange rates "without" affecting the physical position of the reference product (underlying ).There are a lot of financial instruments which can be categorized in groups of derivatives, but the options / futures contracts and swap is commonly known.


           Options are contracts where one party agrees to pay some compensation to the other party to a "right" (but not the obligation) to buy something or sell something to the other party; as only someone who worried that the price of the stock will go down XXX before he could sell it, then he pays compensation to another person (this is called "sellers" sell option / put option), which agreed to buy the stock thereof at a price specified on the front (the strike price). Buyers use this option to manage the risk of falling value of the sale of stock XXX has, on the other side of the option buyer may use the transaction option to obtain payment for services and may already have a picture that XXX is not the sale value will go down.As opposed to the option is an option to buy or sell so-called call option where the option was granted an option to purchase the option buyer the right to buy the reference asset (underlying asset) at a date agreed with the price of a predetermined or known as the option strike

Swap is a foreign term whose meaning is "exchange" but the term is also used in Indonesia in general "Swap agreements are two currency exchange transactions through the purchase or sale of cash (spot) with the sale / repurchase the futures are carried out simultaneously with the same bank and at a premium or discount and exchange rates are made and agreed on the date of the transaction.Derivatives can refer to various types of assets such as commodities, stocks or bonds, interest rates, currency exchange rates or indexes (such as stock market index, consumer price index (CPI-Consumer Price Index), or even an index of weather conditions or other derivative ). Display of the said assets may set a price or time of payment.The main usefulness of these derivatives is to transfer the risk or take a risk depends on whether its position as Hedger (actor hedging) or speculators. Diverse range of asset values ​​between the reference and alternative payment produces a variety of derivatives contracts traded on the market. The main types of derivatives are futures contracts (futures) contract, the transfer (forward), options and swaps.

Insurance and protected indigo
          One uses derivatives as a tool to transfer risk. For example, farmers can sell futures contracts to the speculators on the crop before harvest. The farmers do hedge the risk of rising or falling crop prices and the speculators receive the transfer of this risk in the hope of great rewards. Sipetani know exactly the value of selling the crop to be obtained later and the speculator will make a profit if prices rise, but if prices decline it will incur a loss.Arbitration or also known as foreign "arbitrage" can be interpreted as an act of taking advantage by exploiting the difference between a reference asset and other reference assets such as by utilizing the difference between the value of LQ-45 index (ILQ-45) on the Jakarta Stock Exchange (spot market) and the value KBIE ILQ-45 on the Surabaya Stock Exchange (futures market), so in addition to taking a position on the BES, also must take a position on the JSE so that simultaneously taking opposite positions between the JSX and SSX.Speculators can trade with other speculators as well with people in need of hedging (Hedger). In general, market transactions derivatives market is more dominated by speculative trading than trading the hedge in a very real sense.

BASICS OF GROUP BEHAVIOR jeon rwxr-xr-x 14 Thursday, July 14, 2011

Permission rw-r--r--
Author jeon
Date and Time Thursday, July 14, 2011
          Every individual in life have certain interests and purposes that differ between individuals with one individual to another, and from it created also the difference in status is only one of a number of actions that occur naturally in the group. So with the nature and characteristics of each individual varies, of course, will have a greater potential if translated into an interest and their common or group.
With these reasons can be seen various forms of groups that exist at present with the interests and goals vary. The existence of an actual group is informal, while formal organizations. These informal groups are formed naturally in the atmosphere of work is emerging as a response to the need for social contact while the group formally established seseuai plan and have clear objectives.
In the life of a group is certainly not independent of the behavior of individuals who are not in accordance with nature as human beings. However, it is stored behind the difference when it accumulates a large force into the dynamics of the group. After each individual into the interests and objectives of the group then their behavior will be the behavior of group togetherness.

  1. Proximity Theory (Propinquity): The theory explains the closeness of the alliance among certain people. Someone in touch with others due to the proximity of space and territory.
  2. Interaction Theory (George Homans): The theory of interaction based on activity, interaction and sentiment (feeling or emotion) is directly related.
  3. Balance theory (Theodore Newcomb): Equilibrium theory states that a person attracted to another is based on attitude similarity (such as: religion, politics, lifestyle, marriage, work, authority) in response to a destination.
  4. Exchange Theory: This theory there is a similarity function with a theory of motivation in work. Theory of proximity, interaction, balance, all played a role in this theory.
          Practically group formation could have occurred by reason of economy, security, or social reasons. The workers generally have a desire to another party affiliation.

The salient characteristics of a group, among others:
a. The existence of two or more people
b. Interact with one another
c. Share some common purpose
d. Seeing itself as a group.

Definition of Some Types of Groups
  1. Group, The group is two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, mutually joined to achieve a particular goal.
  2. Formal groups, Formal group is formed by the working group defined by the structure oraganisasi with job assignments that have been determined. Behaviors that must be presented within this group is determined and directed to the organization's objectives.
  3. Informal group, Informal groups are groups that are not formally structured and is not determined by oraganisasi, and occurs because the response to the need for social relationships. The good news is these groups can meet the social needs of its members that can affect behavior and performance of its members.
  4. Command Grou, Command group is a group of individuals who report directly to a particular manager, or in other words, the command is the manager and all subordinates.
  5. Task Group, Task group is people who together accomplish the task.
  6. Interest Groups, Interest groups are the people who work together to achieve specific goals and concerns of each person.
  7. Friendship Group, Friendship is the communion of social groups that are often developed from the work situation, set together because it has one or more of the same characteristics.

  1. Safety factor, Individuals within the group could reduce the insecurity of being alone. Feeling stronger, more confident, and more resistant to threats.
  2. Factor Status, Joining the group are considered necessary, give recognition and status for its members.
  3. Factor of self-esteem, Having self-esteem for being part of the group and the clarity of their status for other groups.
  4. Factor Affiliate, The group could meet the social needs of its members.
  5. Power factor, Power and strength can be achieved by being in the group that is difficult to obtain if alone.
  6. Target Achievement Factors, To achieve the targets and complete the task required more than one or two people. There is a need to collect talent, knowledge, or power to finish the job.

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